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for Laboratory Workers in Spectrometry, Radiation Protection and Medicine


  • Activation & fission products

  • NucMed: therapy, diagnostic, PET, … Dose: emitted energies per decay

  • Iodine’s & special nuclides

  • Nuclide boxes inclusive decay & production

Particle Induced Radiation

  • Shielding, detector/mounting material

  • Muon induced radiation

  • Neutron scattering & capture

  • Activation isotopes

  • Fluorescence in shielding materials


  • U/Th (n,2n) & (n,γ) activation process

  • Pu/Am/Np/U/Th/Pa - production

  • All four Plutonium & Neptunium decay series

  • Nuclide boxes inclusive decay & production

Calibration Radioisotopes

  • Suitability of isotopes for calibra-tion using HPGe detectors

  • Standard & multiphoton sources

  • Low & high energy isotopes

  • Natural intrinsic check sources

  • Neutron sources as Cf & Am

  • Nuclide boxes inclusive decay & production


  • All decay series

  • U-238/Th-232/U-235/Pu-244/(Np-237)

  • Isotopics: Uranium ratios

  • Cosmogenic, complementary nuclides

  • Nuclide boxes inclusive decay & production

Spectrometry Source-Detection Effects

  • SE/DE/XE: single/double/x-ray escape

  • CS/RS: coincidence/random summing

  • Line broadening (Li-7)

  • Asymmetric peaks: Ge lattice recoil

  • Air filter samples: Pb-212 x-ray triplets

Handbook description

Particular emphasis is placed on the methodical combination of the normative fundament of isotope decay-scheme with the decay structures in a new developed list-mode by the author, including:

  • half-life, q-values, references, uncertainties

  • Alpha-, Beta(-/+)-, EC-, IT-, sf-branches, energies & emission-probabilities as well for photons & x-rays

  • energy-lists in intensity order with gray highlighted fields for energy interference for alpha’s

  • cascade decays (level-population), crossover transitions, summing & escape energies as well coincidence & random summing,

but also a lot of additional information to the properties of isotopes as abundance, natural activity, activation, isotope production, etc. from the latest available nuclear data bases. The Handbook provides not only in-depth knowledge on decay information but also for the wide-field of n-interaction/activation occurring on nuclear power plants, on air components, on selected light isotopes as well as on cosmic induced radiation and observable photons produced in commonly used shielding, mounting and detector materials for lowest-background application. Isotopes helpful for indication or evidence of activation as Ag-106, Rh-102 and fission as I-130 are displayed.

Main Updates 2023

Extended and Revision

  • The decay sequences Ce-/La-134 (PET-Isotopes), Ba-/Cs-131 (activation products), Zr/Nb-93-95-97 as well Mo-93, Nd-93m, Sr-91, Te-131m/131, Cd-115m/115 (fission products), but also the activation products Ag-106m/106, Rh-102m/102, Rb-84, Sb-120, Au-196, Tm-168 und W-187 have been inserted begin of 2023.

  • Extention of energy/isotope lists to ~4700 entries from all radioisotopes from the "Radionuclide Handbook" (~310 isotopes), inclusive SE, DE, XE, RS & CS effects, radioisotope production and additional information, has been prepared into the separate "Energy/Isotope Tabels".

  • The natural x-ray energies and intensities are elaborated and extended as well as implemented in the analysis software VRF for high resolution photon spectrometry.

  • Complete revision of the subcharpter "Cosmogenic Produced Radioisotopes", "PET Positron Emitter" but also "Bone Seeking" and "Body Composition".

  • Selected Radioisotopes such as I-130 (blocked fission product), produced only direct through fissison therefore used for spallation evidence for nuclear forensics, we have designated.

  • For the direct detection of beta radiation selected standard calibration isotopes such as Beta- & CE emitter are now implemented on a separate page.

  • The stable or extremely long-lived isotopes Te & Xe - decaying only via  two beta's or two EC - we have completed in subchapter "Iodine's".

  • In general, the latest available data are updated until July 2023 - selected from NNDC(NDS), BIPM(LNHB/LNE), IAEA and NP for each radioisotope.

Table of Contents

1. Quick Info

2. Introduction
    2.1 Notes
    2.2 Description
    2.3 Additional Symboles

3. Natural Radioisotopes & Neptunium
    3.1 Decay Chains of Natural & Neptunium Isotopes
          3.1.1 U-238 Decay and Daughters (Radium Series)
          3.1.2 Th-232 Decay and Daughters (Thorium Series)
          3.1.3 U-235 Decay and Daughters (Actinium Series)
          3.1.4 Np-237 Decay and Daughters (Neptunium Series)
    3.2 Decay Details of Natural & Neptunium Isotopes
          3.2.1 U-238 Decay and their Daughters
          3.2.2 Th-232 Decay and their Daughters
          3.2.3 U-235 Decay and their Daughters

          3.2.4 Np-237 Decay and their Daughters
          3.2.5 Radiological Data and Isotopics of Uranium
          3.2.6 Complementary Primordial Radioisotopes
          3.2.7 Cosmogenic Produced Radioisotopes
          3.2.8 X-Ray from Natural Families
  4. Actinides & Transuranics
    4.1 General View of Cf & Pu Production and Decay
          4.1.1 Cf-249/Pu-241 Series to Np-237 Chain
          4.1.2 Cf-250/Pu-242 Series to U-238 Chain
          4.1.3 Cf-251/Pu-249 Series to U-235 Chain
          4.1.4 Cf-252/Pu-244 Series to Th-232 Chain
    4.2 Decay Details of Actinites & Transuranics
          4.2.1 Th-233 & Th-235 Decay and Production
          4.2.2 Cf & Cm Decays to Plutonium Isotopes
          4.2.3 Pu- Isotope Decays to their Daughters

5. Anthropogenic Radioisotopes
    5.1 Industry, Energy, Research
        5.1.1 Activation Products
        5.1.2 Fission Isotopes
    5.2 Nuclear Medicine
        5.2.1 Therapy (Beta Emitter & Target Alpha )
        5.2.2 Diagnostic
             In Vivo
             In Vitro
        5.2.3 PET (Positron Emitter)
        5.2.4 Bone Seeking Radioisotopes
        5.2.5 Body Composition Radionuclides
    5.3 Iodines, Te & Xe
        5.3.1 Parent Daughter Decay Systems

        5.3.2 Doubble Beta & EC Decay of Xe & Te

6. Standard Calibration Radionuclides
    6.1 Isotopes usable without Coincidence Correction
    6.2 Isotopes requiring Coincidence Correction
    6.3 Multi-Phootn Standard Isotopes
    6.4 Low- & High Energy Gamma Ray Standards
    6.5 Natural Occuring Isotopes
    6.6 Cf-252 and Am-241 Neutron Sources
    6.7 Special Reference Sources

    6.8 Ge & SI X-ray Energies

    6.9 Beta and CE Calibration Standard & Test Sources

7. Partical Induced Radiation
   7.1 Low Background Application
          7.1.1 Neutron Scattering
          7.1.2 Neutron Capture
          7.1.3 Nuclide Activation in Ge, Cu & Fe
          7.1.4 Fluorescence Excitation in Shielding Materials
   7.2 Ge & SI X-ray Energies

    7.3 Neutron Capture of Light Isotopes
    7.4 Photon-Energies in Energy-Order of Particle Induced Isotopes

8. List of Isotopes and Materials
    8.1 Properties of Isotopes
    8.2 Properties of Detector & Mounting Materials

    A.1 Examples for Coincidence Decays
    B.1 Comments to Data Evaluation and Gamma-Ray Emission Probability

    C.1-C.4 Alpha Energy Lists in Energy Order


Nuclide and Isotope Index

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